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Malaya At War – Military History Conference August 2019



Remembering The Malayan Campaign
& The Malayan Emergency

10 – 11 August 2019 Royale Chulan Hotel Kuala Lumpur

The Military History Conference will be held from 10th August till 11th August 2019. The theme for the Conference is called “Malaya at War – Remembering the Malayan Campaign and Malayan Emergency”. The Conference will feature distinguished speakers such as Rear Admiral (R) Guy Griffiths, AO, DSO, DSC, who served on board the HMS Repulse that was sunk by the Japanese aircraft on the 10th December 1941 and Rear Admiral (R) Tan Sri K. Thanabalasingam who was the first Malaysian to be appointed as the Chief of the Royal Malaysian Navy. For the Malayan Emergency, we have the Commissioner of Police (R) Tan Sri J J Raj Jr, who was the OCPD of the Pagoh District when the Bukit Kepong tragedy occurred. The conference is for one and a half days with a full day dedicated to the Malayan Campaign and another half day to the Malayan Emergency. It will be a memorable conference.

To secure your reservation please call (Mr) Dennis Weatherall on land line (02) 9520 6023 or Mobile: 0428 280 536. Or direct email THIS IS A NOT FOR PROFIT ASSISTANCE

Conference Programme

Day 1: (Saturday – 10.08.2019): Malayan Campaign

8.00am Registration 9.00am Welcome Address 9.20am Keynote Address, Rear Admiral (R) Tan Sri K. Thanabalasingam, First Malaysian to be appointed as the Chief of the Royal Malaysian Navy. 9.40am Morning Tea 10.00am Defence of Malaya, 1941-42, Speaker: Professor Brian Farrell Professor of Military History, Department of History, National University of Singapore 10.40am Force Z – Battlecruiser HMS Repulse and the Malayan Campaign Speaker: Rear Admiral Guy R. Griffiths, AO DSO DSC RAN (Rtd) Patron, HMS Repulse Survivors Association, Served on board the HMS Repulse (1941), Former Flag Officer Naval Support Command and Chief of Naval Personnel, Royal Australian Navy 11.20am Kuala Lumpur at War, 1939-1945, Speaker: Mr Andrew Barber, Author, Military Historian 12.00pm Lunch 2.00pm The Battle of Kampar 1941-42, Speaker: Mr. Harchand Singh Bedi, Military History Researcher 2.40pm The Story of Sybil Karthigasu – A WWII Malayan Heroine, Speaker: Mr. Law Siak Hong, President, Ipoh Heritage Society 3.20pm Wreckage, War Relics and War Historical Sites, Speaker: En. Shaharom Ahmad, Malaysian Military Historian & Researcher 4.00pm Afternoon Tea, 4.30pm Preserving War Historical Sites and Promoting Military History Tourism in Malaysia, Panelists: (i) Mr. George Yong, Malaysian Battlefield Guide (ii) En. Zafrani Arifin, Malaysian Battlefield Guide (iii) Mr. Henry Ong, Head, Business Development, Holiday Tours & Travel Sdn Bhd (iv) Mr. Dennis Weatherall, Australian Military Historian, Accredited Battlefield Guide, Moderator: Mr Seumas Tan, Research Director, War History Institute, End of Day One Conference

Day 2: (Sunday – 11.08.2019): Malayan Emergency

9.00am Emergency in Malaya (1948 -60) Speaker: Mr. Christopher Hale, Documentary Producer & Non-Fiction writer 9.40am The Bukit Kepong Incident,  Speaker: Tan Sri J J Raj Jr, Retired Commissioner of Police, Royal Malaysian Police, He was the OCPD of Pagoh when the Bukit Kepong tragedy happened. 10.20am Morning Tea 10.50am The Role of British Propaganda during the Malayan Emergency (1948-60) Speaker: Assoc. Professor Dr. Kumar Ramakrishna, Head of Policy Studies and Head of National Security Studies Programme, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. 11.30am Special Branch projects in the Second Malayan Emergency, Speaker: Datuk Dr Leong Chee Woh, PMW, PGB, JMN, JBS, KMN, AMN, AMP, ABS, PPB, KPK, TP (Ph.D) Former Deputy Director of Special Branch (Operations) and Senior Assistant Commissioner of the Royal Malaysian Police, Recipient of Malaysia’s second highest gallantry award, Panglima Gagah Berani (PGB), Pioneer leader of the Malaysian Police special elite counter-terrorism unit known as E3F Squad.
12.10pm Lunch End of Day Two Conference

Conference Programme: Please Note that the topics and speakers may be subject to change.

For Post Conference  Malay At War Tour Details
Click Below To Read More

Malaya At War : Post Conference Tour

The Post Conference Tour Kuala Lumpur City Tour Sunday 11th August afternoon from Royale Chulan Hotel lobby.  Departure 14:00hrs expected return to hotel 17:30hrs.


Tour Highlights: 

Kings Palace – The former residence of the King of Malaysia National Monument – Representing Malaysian soldiers’ struggle and sacrifice during The Emergency. Designer Felix de Weldon cast the Malaysian model in bronze in Italy. The monument is modelled after the Iwo Jima memorial in Washington D.C. Independence Square – The site of the nation’s historic Declaration of Independence, the area surrounding the square boasts unique colonial era landmarks such as the Sultan Abdul Samad building, the old Selangor Club with its grassy cricket pitch and St Mary’s Anglican Church (built in 1894), National Mosque – Built in 1965, the first modern post-independence building has a delicate shaped dome-roof. National Museum – Built in 1963, the museum sports a classic Minangkabau styled roof while the front mural walls have Italian mosaic. Kuala Lumpur City Centre – Without a doubt the face of modern KL, this magnificent centre piece is topped off by the stainless steel and glass complex of the Twin Towers, one of the world’s tallest buildings at 405 meter.

Pickup and drop off:  “Royale Chulan Hotel” # 5 Jalan Conlay, Kuala Lumpur, 50450, Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutan, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Telephone: +60-3-2688 9688.

Malaya At War Battlefield Sites Tour
Commencing  Kuala Lumpur ex Royale Chulan Hotel.

Monday 12th August :
Kuala Lumpur – Melaka (Lunch included): 

Leaving Kuala Lumpur, we travel south by both modern expressway as well the old trunk road and where Gemencheh borders Gemas, we arrive at Kelamah riverine battle site, demarcated as Battle of Gemas and commemorated by the Sungai Kelamah War Memorial. The environs are where over two days the Australian Imperial Forces fought with valour, inflicting heavy casualties on the Japanese troops. See the remnants of the broken bridge, blown up by the Australians to set up the perfect ambush strategy. Strewn in the roadside bushes are some anti-tanks cylindrical concrete blocks with some bullet markings, visible with closer scrutiny. The well maintained Memorial, amongst others, has Murray Griffin`s painting, a horrific depiction of the Battle of Gemas. Old Gemas Railway Station – actual site where the Japanese soldiers were crawling in anticipation of enemy engagement, as depicted in an old wartime photograph. The old locomotives, carriages and an old water pump – all left abandoned – are testament to Gemas’ century old role, connecting rail travel to the East Coast States. Gemas Broken Bridge & Buloh Kasap Bridge – the former at outskirts of Gemas, a stone`s throw from Negri Sembilan and Johor States borders and the latter at time-warped Buloh Kasap, Johor State. Both concrete-built bridges were intentionally destroyed by the Australian forces to slow down the advancing Japanese Army. The Buloh Kasap bridge spanning Muar River has unique British Union Jack motifs and at the river bank vicinity, are bullet hole markings discovered on the walls of some of the shop houses after more than 75 years. Included lunch en route the day’s journey.  Segamat Iron Bridge – similarly, the railway bridge was intentionally destroyed by Australian forces during the Malayan Campaign to sabotage the advancing  Japanese forces heading southbound by train towards Singapore. Post WW II, repair works were done by the British upon their return and today the Segamat  Iron Bridge continues to serve KTM – Malayan Railway`s southbound trains. On completion of the day`s visitations, we take the road heading to Melaka. Arrive Melaka town, check in and rest of the evening is free at leisure. Overnight stay at the “Ramada Plaza Hotel”, Jalan Bendahara, 75100 Melaka Malaysia Telephone: + 60-6-284 8888

Tuesday 13th August:
Melaka – Muar – Bakri – Parit Sulong – Bukit Kepong – Melaka (B/L/D):

Breakfast at hotel. We then travel 40 km southwards to Muar, a river mouth town served by river-crossing ferry boats up to as late as mid 1960’s. During the Malayan Campaign, it was Muar`s strategic riverine location, at which a photo stop is scheduled. Then continue a further 35 km through Bakri`s crossroads and onwards to Parit Sulong – hellish battlefields that witnessed continual heavy engagements between Australian and Japanese forces. The Final Retreat in Bakri – The Battle of Muar 1942. Experience being on the precise documented roadside spot as depicted by the famous photo of Allied soldiers aiming the artillery cannons on the advancing Japanese tanks. This was the last battle site in Malaya before the Allied Forces retreated to Singapore. Onwards, we pay homage with a stop at Parit Sulong Memorial – scene of the infamous Parit Sulong Massacre in 1942 which is on record as being part of The Battle of Muar. There were a combined 150 Australians and support Allied units, who were mercilessly tortured and massacred. A stone`s throw from the Parit Sulong Memorial, there still exists the slightly above-ground and pillared barracks-like structure where the massacre took place. There are two infamous rooms where the extremely inhumane tortures took place by the Japanese soldiers, as well as the site under the shade of the then big tree, where the massacred bodies and remains were allegedly disposed. Included lunch en route the day’s journey. For our last visitation, we journey the road less travelled through Malay heartlands to the “Malayan Alamo.” Arriving at the Emergency Gallery at Bukit Kepong – we are at the Malayan Emergency battle-site where the police and civilians resisted and fought valiantly against the Communist Terrorists. The attack was made on the Bukit Kepong Police Station. On completion of the day`s visitations, we again take the road heading back to Melaka. Included dinner with return transfers. Overnight stay at the “Ramada Plaza Hotel” – address details as above.

Wednesday 14th August:
Melaka – Port Dickson – Kampar – Sungai Siput – Ipoh (Breakfast/Lunch):

Breakfast at hotel. Today, we traverse four states through Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor and Perak. Our day begins with a 62 km secondary road drive, with parts of the journey close by or hugging the coastline to the garrison town of Port Dickson. Our first stop the Army Museum (Muzium Tentera Darat) has an extensive collection of decommissioned military assets – tanks, artillery guns, APCs and other militaria. The Museum has replicated in fine detail, a communist cavern hideout depicting the tough living conditions and operatives of the Communist Terrorists in the web of cave tunnels. *Green Ridge – historical war site of The Battle of Kampar, a four day onslaught between British forces and Allied support units crossing over 1941/42 New Year`s Day. The Japanese suffered massive casualties and a major morale breaking loss and even had frantic reinforcements brought in by coastal sea vessels from northern Malayan ports, to beef up their depleted strength. The Battle of Kampar remains one of the more outstanding battles for the British Battalion and with pride of successfully holding the relentless might of the Japanese Army in their advances down the Malay Peninsula. (*Note: As this is an unchartered battle site and the terrain is rather challenging, serious ( caution must be taken at all times. Participants would need to be relatively healthy and fit to attempt this terrain. ) Included lunch en route the day’s journey. Monument & Gallery – commemorating Elphil Estate Manager’s cold blooded murder by Communist Terrorists in Sungei Siput, Perak. This incident triggered the start of the Malayan Emergency lasting 12 years from 1948-1960. Here we have a rare photograph of the interior of the Manager’s bungalow. This picture was taken after Walker’s death, with whom we believe is the new Estate Manager and his family. This picture is part of Arthur Waters’ collection – Arthur Waters was a former policeman who served during the Malayan Emergency. After completion of the day`s visitation, we proceed onwards to Ipoh. Check in and rest of day and evening at leisure. Overnight stay at the “Weil Hotel” 292 Jalan Sultan Idris Shah, 3000 Ipoh, Negeri Perak, Malaysia. Telephone: +60-5-208 2228

Thursday 15th August:
Ipoh – Papan – Taiping (Breakfast/Dinner):

Breakfast at hotel. We commence the day by proceeding to Ipoh War Memorial – The Cenotaph was erected and unveiled in 1927 commemorating Remembrance Day and to honour fallen soldiers of World War I 1914 to 1918, World War II 1939 to 1945, The Emergency 1948 to 1960 and Indonesia-Malaysia  Confrontation 1962 to 1966, as well as thousands of war prisoners and civilians who perished at the Thailand-Burma Death Railway between 1943 and 1945. Gurkha Cemetery – The cemetery lies in a military camp, formerly known as Suvla Lines. The camp is now a very large installation, straddling both sides of the road and is home to various military units, each of which have their own entrance and guard house. The cemetery, now known as The Gurkha Cemetery, is the resting place for close to 100 Non World War service and dependent burials here, 10 being unidentified dependents of Gurkha soldiers. Sybil Kathigasu’s Home – A house located at Papan, where Sybil Kathigasu lived – the only Malayan woman to be awarded the George Medal. A Eurasian of Irish- Indian parentage, she was married to Dr Abdon Clement Kathigasu. They had two daughters (Olga and Dawn) and an adopted son (William). The Kathigasu’s ran a clinic at 141 Brewster Road (now Jalan Sultan Idris Shah) in Ipoh from 1926 until the Japanese invasion of Malaya. For a period of close to two years, Sybil helped the resistance forces in their fight against the Japanese. Although the family was fearful of what they were doing, they supported her in providing medicine and medical services to the guerillas. Taiping War Memorial – The final resting place for Allied personnel who were killed during World War II, and particularly the Malayan Campaign and the Japanese Occupation of Malaya. Servicemen who died after the war or during their posting in northern Malaya prior to the Malayan Emergency are also interred here. The cemetery is located at the foothills of Bukit Larut formerly Maxwell Hills Taiping, Perak and was erected and, till current times, maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. There are more than 850 World War II casualties interred in this cemetery, including more than 500 men who remain unidentified. After completion of the day`s visitation, we proceed onwards to Taiping town. Check in and rest of day and evening at leisure. Taiping, once a former capital of Perak State during the early tin mining boom era, is historically a town with a long list of firsts – totalling 33 overall in Malayan / Malaysian history. Amongst others, 1st railway station and railway line, 1st public wet market, 1st golf club and golf course, and 1st airstrip with the distinction of having the great aviation pioneer Amelia Earhart doing a refuelling stop between her flight from Bangkok to Singapore. Included dinner with return transfer. Overnight stay at the “Novotel Hotel” # 1 Jalan Tupai, 34000, Taiping, Negeri Perak Malaysia. Telephone: +60-5-820 8288

Friday 16th August:
Taiping – Kuala Sepetang – Penang (Breakfast):

Breakfast at hotel, then proceed to Matang Museum. The exhibits cover the discovery of tin, interestingly, by Long Jaafar’s pet elephant, Si Larut. The animal turned up with its legs covered in hard muddy lumps which turned out to be tin. Long Jaafar, subsequently enlisted the help of 20 Chinese miners from Penang to start his mining operation. The mine was so lucrative it created an influx of Chinese migrants, which resulted in the creation of two feuding clans, Ghee Hin and Hai San. The two clashed and triggered the three Larut Wars from 1861 to 1874, causing the British to intervene. The Japanese Imperial Army used the fort as its headquarters during the War years. Next, we proceed with a stop en route at Kuala Sepetang, formerly Port Weld, a unique producer, till current modern day, of the bulk of the nation’s top quality mangrove charcoal. Visit a charcoal kiln for an educational experience to observe the charcoal production processes. Onwards to Penang crossing from mainland Penang by her iconic Penang Bridge that links the Malay Peninsula with Penang Island. After completion of the day`s visitation, we proceed onwards to Georgetown, Penang. Check in and rest of day and evening at leisure.  Overnight stay at the “Royale Chulan Hotel” # 1&2 Pengkalan Weld, Georgetown, 10300, Georgetown, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Telephone: +60-4-259 8888.

Saturday 17th August:
Penang (Breakfast/Dinner):

Breakfast at hotel, proceed to the Cenotaph War Memorial located on the Esplanade in George Town, Penang, Malaysia. The site of the Cenotaph is situated at the shoreline of the Esplanade. Fort Cornwallis – the largest standing fort in Malaysia, named after Marquis Charles Cornwallis, only a set of ten-foot high outer walls remain, with an enclosed park within. It is a surreal experience to hear the 1812 Overture playing over the speaker system while a Malaysian man dressed in full British regalia stands at the gate. Inside the fort is a variety of vaguely-informative exhibits. Convent Light Street (Former Prisoners Of War Camp) – now a classroom in oldest girl’s school in Southeast Asia. This school room, at the Convent Light Street, must be the most notorious class in the entire Convent as it served as the internment camp for a group of prisoners of war who were captured by the Japanese after the USS Grenadier was sunk in the Straits of Malacca. I wonder whether the present girls who use the classroom are fully aware of the history that their classroom carries. During their incarceration, the prisoners scratched their names with their belt buckles on various parts of the classroom walls. Penang War Museum – The former British bastion was manned by British, Sikh and Malay soldiers after its completion. It fell during WWII when the Japanese launched an attack against the fort from inland, rather than from the sea, as was expected by the British. From that day onwards (17 December 1941) the Japanese commandeered the stronghold and the army base became chequered with a dark past. It was used as a prison base for acts of torture and other cruelties. As a result of these war atrocities, the garrison was dubbed ‘Bukit Hantu’ (Ghost Hill) by locals due to the hundreds of people who were brought here and beheaded. After completion of the day`s visitation, we proceed back to hotel, and rest of day and evening is free at leisure for your own activities to self-explore Penang`s culturally rich UNESCO certified enclave in Georgetown’s old quarter. Included dinner with return transfer. Overnight stay at the “Royale Chulan Hotel” Georgetown

Sunday 18th August:
Departure Penang (Breakfast)

Breakfast at hotel. Fly Penang – Kota Bharu (Lunch). Early Morning leaving Penang by domestic flight to Kota Bharu. Upon your arrival at Kota Bharu Airport via FY 2442 at 07:55hrs meet on arrival and proceed to the battlefield trail from Kota Bharu IJA landing beach to Kuala Krai. The landing of the Imperial Japanese Force in Kota Bharu triggered the Malayan Campaign and marks the beginning of the Japanese invasion of Malaya. Kuala Pak Amat (formerly known as Sabak beach) – Kuala Pak Amat is one of the first landing sites of the Japanese assault forces in Malaya. A fierce battle took place here, thus, the battle is sometimes referred to as “The Battle of Kuala Pak Amat”. Some of the notable things to note at Kuala Pak Amat is a simple monument commemorating the Japanese landing at Kuala Pak Amat. The date and time are stated in the monument. We were told that there used to be pillboxes along the beach of Kuala Pak Amat but they seem to have disappeared due to erosion. For those who know the historical background and the significance of Kuala Pak Amat in WWII, it may be a surreal feeling walking on the beach where hundreds were killed and wounded. A feeling similar to walking on the beaches of Normandy in France. For those who are not familiar with the history of Kuala Pak Amat, walking on the beach is just a peaceful and serene experience. Pantai Cahaya Bulan (formerly known as Badang beach) – Pantai Cahaya Bulan was another one of the early landing sites by the “Takumi Detachment”. It is hard to imagine that Pantai Cahaya Bulan which today serves as a beautiful and popular beach resort is once a landing site for the Imperial Japanese Army. We were told that there used to be pillboxes in the vicinity but unfortunately, like Kuala Pak Amat, the pillboxes had since disappeared due to erosion. Included lunch en route the day’s journey. Pillbox, Pulau Kundur – This Pillbox is located in Pulau Kundur which is on the way to Pantai Cahaya Bulan (formerly known as Badang). This Pillbox is the one of the pillboxes that we could enter and explore. The Pillbox is in relatively good shape and appears to be sturdy. Being in the Pillbox allows the person to have a “feel” on what it was like to mend a defensive position awaiting the enemies to attack. World War II Memorial Museum (“Bank Kerapu”) – The World War II Memorial museum in Kota Bharu is also known as “Bank Kerapu”. The World War II Memorial museum is located at Padang Merdeka. It was built in 1912 to be used as a commercial bank by the Mercantile Bank of India Ltd, thus, the name “Bank Kerapu” The building was used as the headquarters for the Japanese Kempetai (Japanese secret police). Though Bank Kerapu is not an exclusive war museum but according to those who had visited, one can view photographs, artefacts and other memorabilia from the War. One can also view the replica of a pillbox and a memorial stone jointly erected by the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia and the Government of the state of Kelantan. The memorial structure was erected to commemorate the “first commitment of Australian Combat Units against the Forces of Imperial Japan at Kota Bharu”. Overnight stay at the “Grand Riverview Hotel” Jalan Post Office Lama, 15000, Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Telephone: +60-9-742 9988

 Monday 19th August:
Departure Kota Bharu (Breakfast)

Breakfast at hotel. Then, visit the colourful wet market and take a stroll around the cultural zone, which offers an invaluable insight into the history of Kelantan. Visit places like Royal Museum, Handicraft Village and Siti Khadijah wet market. After tour, drop off Kota Bharu Airport for domestic flight to Kuala Lumpur.  Then onward flight to either a new destination within Malaysia or your home port.

End of tour at KLIA ex your flight from Kota Bharu

What is included in the cost for the Conference & Tour

  • Three nights share twin accommodation at the five star Royale Chulan Hotel Kuala Lumpur in Friday 9th out Monday 12th August 2019
  • Breakfast daily buffet style
  • One & a half days conference by guest speakers as detailed
  • Morning & afternoon teas on Saturday, morning tea only, on day two Sunday of conference days
  • Lunches both Saturday & Sunday of conference
  • Gala dinner evening Saturday 10th with refreshments
  • Return airport transfers in air-conditioned vehicle
  • Six night – seven day post conference tour from Monday 12th to Sunday 18th August in share twin accommodation
  • Breakfast daily in hotel of stay
  • Transport throughout in air-conditioned transport
  • All sightseeing as detailed in itinerary
  • Local entrance fees as applicable whilst on tour
  • English speaking battlefield orientated guide on tour
  • Three lunches
  • Three dinners
  • Malaysian tourism and heritage taxes
  • Economy class airfare Penang-Kota Bharu-Kuala Lumpur Sunday 18th
  • Two day one night visit to Kota Bharu, Japanese landing area 8th Dec 41
  • Sightseeing with guide in and around war time areas of Kota Bharu
  • Land arrangements end at Kuala Lumpur airport on return from Kota Bharu on Monday afternoon 19th August, allowing you to continue to explore Malaysia or return home this evening
  • Conference encompasses a total of ten nights & eleven days from arrival Kuala Lumpur Friday 9th through to Monday 19th August 2019.

Cost For the itinerary as presented:
AUD 1,999.00 share twin

If you’d prefer to have single room throughout the extra charge is AUD 606.00,
(Airfares are not included, this is a land package cost only as detailed above)

 If you elect not to take the excursion onto Kota Bharu (the only Japanese landing site in Malaya WWII) then we deduct the airfare and land arrangements. Cost then covers the three day conference package and seven day tour of the peninsula battle sites.  As the seven day tour finishes in Penang, you then have the opportunity to fly back to Kuala Lumpur or maybe see the sights en-route by taking an Express Coach direct to KL International Airport. The transfer cost between Penang and Kuala Lumpur is not included.

The coach operates multi times daily and cost as at 21 April is MYR 60.00 (approximately AUD 20.00) whilst a one way airfare from Penang to Kuala Lumpur varies considerably subject to airline and booking class availability. Road distance is 396 kms and average drive time 5 hours 30 minutes.  As most flights exit Kuala Lumpur to Australian ports in the evening it’s a way to see a little of the Malaysian countryside before you connect with your home bound international flight.

Cost: AUD 1,525.00 share twin or single sole use room is then AUD 558.00
(This above cost is less the extension to Kota Bharu between 18-19th Aug, 19)

This may be the last opportunity to hear direct from our guest speakers that were actually involved in both WWII and the Malay Emergency period, as most are now in their very senior years.  It’s an opportunity not to be missed !

To secure your reservation please call (Mr) Dennis Weatherall on land line (02) 9520 6023 or Mobile: 0428 280 536.  Or direct email   THIS IS A NOT FOR PROFIT JOURNEY-TOUR.

Note: Currently airfares are available on Air Asia (SYD-KUL-SYD) from AUD 580.00 pp inclusive baggage and meal service and taxes. Malaysian Airlines (MAS) offer a full economy service with baggage, meals, drink service and taxes from AUD 768.00 pp return. There are other airlines via Singapore, Bangkok or even Hong Kong but the two airlines mentioned above are the only two with direct nonstop services.

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